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Thursday, June 30, 2011

Hyperclusters - Shaun Thomas Photometric Redshift Anomalous Survey Map finds Aggregations of Galaxies Stretching over 3 Billion Light Years Reveals the Universe contains Older and Larger scale structures that challenge the Big-Bang Theory

Hyperclusters are composed of local groups of superclusters, and would require over 100 billion years to form. This means that the vast VOIDS are not empty, but are turbulent magnetic fields between superclusters, that connect to hyperclusters by gigantic filaments, many larger then the sloan great wall filament, spanning over 1.37 billion light years across. The Universe must be filled with innumerable hyperclusters that form fractal filamentary structures.  Stenflo in "Solar Magnetic Fields" 2008 identifies on the sun's surface, a widespread "fractal-like pattern of voids, that are teeming with turbulent magnetic fields." The Virgo Supercluster is about 110 million light years across, and contains about 100 galaxy groups and clusters. The larger southern Local supervoid near our local supercluster has 600 billion times the volume of our galaxy.

 In "Inhomogeneities in the Universe" Francesco Sylos Labini wrote "the observed galaxy structures are not compatible with the standard LCDM (cold dark matter) model of galaxy formation." "Inhomogeneities pose a fundamental challenge to standard big-bang cosmology."  Michael J Hudson wrote on Cosmic Smoothness, "This result is not entirely new, previous studies based on subsets of the data studied by Shaun Thomas showed the same effect." "If the inhomogeneity is confirmed, the implications for the big-bang standard model would be severe, including that for dark matter and dark energy." Hudson uses quotation marks, referring to the "cosmic web" as filaments, but states it is too soon to discard the standard model.  Alfven proposed a plasma hierarchy of structures in the Universe, which includes the galactic corona, and the hottest densest known plasma medium pervading Galaxy Clusters. Most likely there are no laws or rules in the Universe to limit the size of plasma structures.  Atoms, stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, superclusters, hyperclusters...and ever larger and smaller plasma structures all simultaneously exist together having their own relative time. There is no smallest particle to be found, nor largest structure in the universe.  In fact the universe is such that everyone cannot reach a common definable description of agreement. Space is never empty, because some smaller particles can always be found between the distances that larger objects are apart. Size is relative to comparisons of objects.  Is true empty space without objects or particles absolute emptiness or nothing?  Everything is not nothing, so why must there be something rather then nothing, and an "everything?"
Hyperclusters of galaxies

12 billion light year scale view by BOSS  

Fractal Voids of Magnetic Fields on the Sun

Saturday, June 25, 2011

Galaxy 3c303 Black Hole Magnetic Field Discovered emits 150,000 light year long Jet of Electric Current 10^18 amps

Phillipp Kronberg and team statesFor one component of the JET we obtain for the first time a direct determination of a Galactic-scale ELECTRIC CURRENT ~10e18 A and its direction-positive charge away from the AGN. Our analysis strongly supports a model where the jet energy flow is mainly ELECTROMAGNETIC.   There must also be an incoming negative charge direction to the AGN, since the positive charge direction is outgoing and away from the galactic AGN.  The galactic size rather then strength of magnetic fields surrounding galaxies implies that electromagnetic forces are actually doing the spinning and rotating of plasma galaxies. Kronberg and Lovelace wrote in "Measurement of the Electric Current in a KPC-scale Jet" that the radiated power is expected to be significantly less then the jet power, because the jet power goes into a combination of pdV work on the ambient medium and to energizing ions and electrons in the outer radiating lobes. 3c303's radiating knots are a few thousand times larger in volume then in M87's. Along the jet axis there is a net flow of negative charge toward the AGN core within knot E3. An equal but opposite return current flow inward or outward at much larger distances from the jet axis must occur, so that the net current outflow from the AGN source is zero. The toroidal magnetic field is responsible for collimating the jet." A discussion is ongoing at Thunderbolts Forum.  Krongberg says "a sudden change in the waves alignment is an unambiguous signature of an electric current." "Magnetic fields from the black hole core of Galaxy 3c303 are generating the current, sending it out to 150,000 light years." It's strength is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 amps or 10 to the power 18 amps. It reaches as far out into the IGM as the galaxy itself. Team member Lovelace's model of a collimated current outflow and inflow is most credible. Black Holes are not required. Outer space is >99.9% plasma. This means that dark matter components should not be applied to explain galaxy shapes and great walls of galaxies aligned along cosmic sheets and filaments. The naked singularity is also mathematically possible says Hawking, but it is considered an abhorence to the big-bang theory. The naked singularity is the ultimate arch rival to the existence of black holes and dark matter. Black holes have never been directly observed, and merely have theoretical inferred postulated existence. Galaxies are close together and all have black hole jets that carry electric currents. THERE IS A LARGE NUMBER OF GALAXIES WITHIN LESS THAN A MILLION LIGHT YEARS OF OTHER GALAXIES.  Conclusion:  This means that the intergalactic medium IGM is filled with electric currents and magnetic fields, from galactic black hole jets that can extend as far out into space as the length of the galaxy itself. All galaxies have mere theoretical supermassive black holes at their centers, and are very close to neighbors with comparable sizes.

Measurement of the Electric Current in Galaxy 3c303

Electric currents inside magnetically confined cosmic plasma filaments goes unmentioned for shaping the cosmic web universe. By attaching dark matter components inside and around actual plasma filaments that are shaping outer space by electromagnetic forces, the phony big-bang theory remains supported. 

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Type II SUPERCONDUCTORS constrain the magnetic field in FILAMENTS surrounded by vortex currents.

Type II SUPERCONDUCTORS constrain the magnetic field in FILAMENTS surrounded by vortex currents.
Superfluid helium is a type II superconductor that carries angular momentum by electric currents in quantized vortices