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Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Protostars and Galaxy Jets with Electric Currents Attract H Gas from High-Velocity Ionized Charged H+ Clouds HVCs pervading in the IGM WHIM Filaments

Lehner and Howk of Univ. Notre Dame Indiana state "THE IGM IS A SOURCE OF GAS THAT FORMS STARS in our galaxy." Fast moving highly ionized clouds rain down ionized hydrogen on the galaxy disk.  Along EXTRAGALACTIC sight lines, Hubble and FUSE revealed that over 70 to 90% of the sky is highly ionized high-velocity clouds HVCs. The component at minus -118 km/sec is likely associated with the OUTER ARM of the milky way. The +180 km/sec HVC is likely plunging at high speed onto the thick disk of the milky way." Star formation is fed by incoming large-scale IGM flows from galaxy halo objects or HVCs.  Clearly, POLARITY charged Protostar jets are conclusive observational proof that EM charged forces in charged plasma from the IGM are forming stars, and not gravity from gas already in the galaxy.  Lehner says "the mass of the iHVC is proportional to the distance squared."  Gravitational Mass replaced Charge in Maxwell's EM equations, when Einstein tried to make celestial mechanics (relativity gravity) consistent with Maxwell's electromagnetism equations. Charged HVCs in the IGM are obviously ruled not from gravity, but by electromagnetic forces.  Pat Hartigan of Rice University has made a movie of baby star jets, by using only 14 years of photos, showing extremely slight variations, changes and motions.  Gravitational interpretations for EM jets are ludicrous, and still being presented. Jets carry and show the direction that the electric current is moving. Friction heats up the accretion disk of attracted gas and dust. The jets shrink as the star forms and develops a heliospheric current sheet that extends beyond the solar system, that increases with strength at distance, and suddenly halts where magnetic field bubbles are being discovered.  Hannes ALfven In 1977 first proposed that galaxies have a larger-scaled Galactic current sheet like stars. The electric current in the heliospheric current sheet has a radial spiral structural component of 3 x 10^9 amps, implying a continually flowing electric current towards the sun.  Alfven and Carlqvist in 1977 published "Interstellar Clouds and the Formation of Stars." Alfven mentions the "pseudo-plasma formalism" is wrong, and that star formation naturally belongs to the field of cosmic plasma physics. Stars form from a dusty plasma cloud, and magnetic fields promote contraction of interstellar clouds. Magnetic compression may be the main mechanism for forming interstellar clouds and keeping them together."

Water vapor clouds in protoplanetary disk
 Gas and dust attracts to the jets, forming the accretion disk. A new phase of matter research is superconductors modeling black holes, that will conduct electricity with 100% efficiency, without any energy loss by resistance, near absolute zero and very high temperatures, like in outer space plasmas. It will explain away gravitational star theories, and black holes. The jets disappear after a star forms, because the heliosphere sheath electric field extends beyond the length of the solar system. Most stars form in spiral arms of galaxies, and the jets that carry electric currents form protostars in spiral arms.  As dust and gas is attracted to the jets, the jets shrink as the accretion disk wraps around the electric current. This causes the star to orbit around the galaxy, because the protostar jets indicate the directions of highly ionized flowing plasma coming in from the intergalactic medium or IGM.  Howk and Lehner of Univ Notre Dame have shown that highly ionized high-velocity clouds HVCs are forming stars in our galaxy, raining down fast-moving highly ionized hydrogen down on the galaxy's disk.

Friday, August 26, 2011

Diamond Star Core Remnant Orbiting Pulsar PSR J1719-1438 Detected Suggests EM Plasma Fusion Formation Models for Stars

DIAMOND IS AN EXCELLENT ELECTRICAL INSULATOR, WITH HIGH THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY. At higher pressures with trace amounts of heavy atoms like boron, diamond can be heated to ever higher temperatures, known stable up to 3,000 degrees C, and above.  Scientists state "the core of a stripped down star would be mostly carbon, with a dash of oxygen. The mass of the object is under high pressure by its own jupiter sized gravity, likely causing the core to crystallize into diamond, as carbon does inside earth.  The core of the star was and still is almost entirely a form of carbon, in this case lower temp diamond. Carbon transforms into complex graphene polymers, nanotubes, and quantum plasmonic graphene dots.  Carbonaceous dusty plasmoid dots would form before buckyballs during high temp supernovas, and are likely involved in forming stars by conducting electric currents in protostar jets. These stars like our sun live steadily billions of years, and would not supernova to form pulsars or aka black holes, like the more massive hotter short lived protostars in spiral arms, that explode according to some theories, when they lose their carbon cores and are depleted of hydrogen gas.  The role of carbon in the Universe, is highly organized by electromagnetic forces, manifesting as graphene polymer 3D multi-layer plasmonics, carbon nanotubes, that contain buckyballs, and perfectly formed quantum dots aka black holes. Low temp graphene quantum dots have fractal magneto-conductance in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, with a determined fractal dimension of 1.4 for graphene.


"Transformation of a Star Into A Planet in a Millisecond Pulsar Binary" by Bailes, Staffers

Univ. Manchester scientists state that "99.9% of the white dwarf's mass was removed by the pulsar 600,000 kilometers away, leaving only the stars diamond core orbiting every 2 hours and 10 minutes.  Strong EM forces from the pulsar, rather then gravity, attracted the gas away from the white dwarf, leaving only the core.  Pulsars are renowned for having incredibly strong EM forces. Diamond cores and neutron star cores likely circulate in galaxies, as nucleation accretion disks, and are reused to form stars on neutral accretion surfaces, when ionized charged plasma attracts charged particles, dust, and gases. The core is not a transformed star nor a planet, which conceals the issue, but a magnificent discovery of what a white dwarf star is made of inside. This however is deeply suppressed... It is obvious that stars form having carbon structured cores.  Single layer graphene conducts electricity an order of magnitude greater then bilayer graphene.  A semiconductor cannot have only a single layer of graphene.  Diamond is an excellent insulator, and is involved in stellar plasma fusion, and not thermonuclear fusion by gravity. Superconduction in a superfluid has been proven in neutron stars.  There is no resistance nor friction and perfect electrical current conductivity in a neutron star.  Normal stars are not perfect superconductors, and are semiconductors. Obviously electric currents power neutron stars, and not gravity.
Nanometer sized DIAMONDS are believed to be a product of the newborn star.  Our solar system meteorites sampled contained only 20 atoms of nanodiamonds, but were expected to be abundant.
The "only thing left" of a huge massive star is orbiting pulsar PSR  J1719-1438 about 4,000 light years away.  It is a DIAMOND STAR CORE, and NOT A PLANET. Benjamin Stappers says "the rarity of pulsars with planet-mass companions means that producing such "EXOTIC PLANETS" is the exception and not the rule, that requires special circumstances." The deliberate misrepresentation that this carbon star remnant was detected as a planet, is because big-bang gravity collaboration for recognition thrives among the real paid off pseudo-scientists of society who misinterpret results.  Electromagnetic star formation and the common abundance of carbon atoms is clearly evident, because these carbon cores are entirely undetectable in outer space, except for this rare special circumstance, where the detection of an orbiting planet sized object orbiting a pulsar aligned with earth was possible.  Carbon core stellar remnants obviously fill outer space, and have only recently been detected with new technology. Carbon core star remnants dynamically transform their structures into diamonds, graphenes, buckyballs, carbon nanotubes.. and flourish in outer space conditions, being largely responsible for carrying cosmic scale electric currents, and producing vast magnetic fields shaping and ruling the universe.
The Serpens constellation of stars lies in our flat milky way disk, where most of the carbonaceous matter in the galaxy is found.  The role of electric currents carried by carbon structures is strongly supported, by the find of a diamond star core. 

5 nm diameter DIAMOND nanoparticles Metamaterials acoustical wave invisibility cloak by x-ray tomography from acoustically designed nanocomposite metamaterial.  Three dimensional structures form by acoustical wave forces, just as supernovas produce shock waves and form carbon buckyballs.

Thursday, August 11, 2011

First Graphene Detection in Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae Suggests EM Cosmology of Quantum Dots Graphene Polymer Plasmonics




Nanocosmology


Hexagonal pattern shapes in galaxy IC 342

GRAPHENE and BUCKYBALLS inside CARBON NANOTUBES - COMMON ABUNDANT CARBON ATOMS have INCREDIBLE IMPLICATIONS for cosmology :  The known visible matter mass fraction content of the Milky Way galaxy is 74% Hydrogen, 23% HElium, 1% Oxygen, and 0.46% Carbon. Heavier elements greatly influence astronomical phenomena. Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the Universe. 2% of the milky way's mass is in heavy elements, mostly in the disk.  Stars in the galactic halo have very little heavy elements of C, N, and O. The mass ratio of Hydrogen Atoms to Carbon Atoms is shockingly influential at 150 to 1 in our galaxy, considering how graphene organizes electric and magnetic fields in outer space Exobiology and Cosmology Implications: (1) Water becomes liquid forming clusters and beads near absolute zero temperature by contacting carbon nanotubes. (2) Graphite Dust + CO + H ---> (yields) Carbon Nanotubes . (3) Graphene Nanobubbles likely fills outer space, and GRAPHENE UNDER STRAIN CREATES INCREDIBLY STRONG MAGNETIC FIELDS. (4) Electrons in vacuum near absolute zero like in outer space move at increasingly higher speeds in earth labs on GRAPHENE in ways that MIMIC THE MOVEMENTS OF PHOTONS.   NASA's Spitzer telescope has only just RECENTLY been able to detect these carbon molecules using NEW technology. These Carbon structures have EXTRAORDINARY PROPERTIES and are : (1) Formed in Common Supernovae WINDS (Magnetic Fields - Bubbles). (2) Extremely stable, strong, flexible, elastic, tensile, transparent, and easily formed by a wide variety of ways. (3) Very good Electrical CONDUCTORS that DISSIPATES HEAT and are TRANSPARENT.  The Paper states C60, C70, and Planar C24 Graphene Detections appearing as small fuzzy blobs in the Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae.  Stanghellini says  "the existence of these molecules does not depend on the stellar temperature, but on the strength of the WIND SHOCKS." "Collisional shocks generated in stellar winds of planetary nebulae (supernova magnetic fields) could be responsible for fullerenes and graphenes." BUCKYBALLS were discovered in the Magellanic Clouds in 2010, which sprung a huge rebuttal against Dark Matter Gravitational Forces for what are Electromagnetic Forces in outer space vacuums.  The EM forces of these commonly abundant Carbon molecular structures in outer space, can far better and more easily explain away black holes, and fictional gravitational forces attributed to phony dark matter attached filamentary components. 1 atom thick filamentary graphene sheets are known grown up to 5 inches thick.  Graphene DOES NOT HAVE VOLUME, ONLY SURFACE. Its STRUCTURE IS EXPOSED TO ITS ENVIRONMENT, responding to ANY molecule that contacts it. When graphene contains combined polymers its electrical properties are precisely organized by LIGHT. The polymers keep informational memory of light and the graphene retains its modified properties. The informational memory can only be erased by heating.  Black holes have similar volume to surface area equation relationships as quantum dots formed from graphene.
Black Hole Laser Beams transform Graphene into BuckyballsBlack Hole LASERS form BUCKYBALLS
Fractal point entity Buckyballs compose spinning one dimensional single atom thick Graphene Nanotubes that thrive in the EM Fabric Vacuum of Outer Space, carrying flowing electric currents and having moving high speed electrons, that produce vast sized magnetic fields of incredible strengths. 

Dimensionality of Carbon Atoms
Three dimensional covalent network structure of Diamond, Two dimensional covalent plates of graphite, One dimensional single wall tubes of carbon nanotubes, and Zero dimensional point entities of C60 Buckyballs on the millimeter scale. Between the integer 0d, 1d, 2d, and 3d, there are fractional and fractal dimensions.
The Fractal Filamentary Cosmic Web of Filaments is very likely the result from the properties of graphene. The Fractal Cosmic Web of Filaments contains the newly detectable transparent flexible Graphenes and Carbon Nanotubes of larger thicknesses, organizing cosmic scale electric and magnetic fields. 

EM Interacting Nanotubes
BUCKYBALLS INSIDE CARBON NANOTUBES  
ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY TEM technique shows magnetic field line properties of nanotubes resemble GALAXIES having Jets with electric currents.
Cyclotron electron orbits in multilayer graphene produce galaxy phenomena

Hannes Alfven said the spiral arms of galaxies carry electric currents.  Spinning spiral arms wrap in and around the galactic disk, where most stars form and are located, and which is roughly 2% heavier elements by composition. Electric currents carried through interacting shape transforming graphene nanotubes in the spiral arms, produce vast strong magnetic fields in the outer halo regions of galaxies. Supernovas form quantum dot black holes, when increasing electric currents in the spiral arms of galaxies are forming protostars. Galaxy halos of theoretical dark matter, are likely these regions where these magnetic field bubbles surround the galaxy.

Carbon Stars form like beads on strings, and plasma knots form Birkeland currents that convert light into electricity, connecting galaxies to construct the filamentary cosmic web of the Universe by the properties of carbon nanotubes.
 

Single-stranded DNA and carbon nanotubes are chemically compatible and readily self-assemble into DNA-carbon nanotubes hybrids, including helical wrapping. DNA spontaneously binds to carbon nanotubes by attractive interactions between the DNA BASES and the nanotube sidewall.

Graphene can be turned into complex structures by simply placing NANODROPLETS OF WATER on its surface, says Patra. Water nanodroplets wrinkle graphene sheets, making them more pliable. Complex structures can be obtained, including knots, rings, and other formations through rapid bending, folding, sliding, rolling, and zipping of the material.

Zhao - Self-assembly of DNA Segments on Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Arrays in Aqueous Solution Water

Gravity dark matter scientist Crowell at Universetoday.com writes "GRAPHENE SHEETS COULD PLAY THE ROLE OF SOME PRIMORDIAL RIBOSOME IN OUTER SPACE. A GRAPHENE SHEET OR BUCKYBALL TUBE WOULD ATTRACT NUCLEOTIDES AND PREFERENTIALLY PAIR UP WITH THE APPROPRIATE BASE PAIRS." Fullerenes were common on the very early earth. Many complex metabolites are like graphene sheets and fullerone walls at the core by guing CH(ON) rings."

 Gated BILAYER GRAPHENES : Plasmons crowd together EM light waves into nanoscale dimensions, trapping and confining light as an explanation for inferred unobserved black holes in galaxies. Plasmonics in bilayer graphene are even more pronounced than in monolayer graphene. Plasmons are collective oscillations of electrons.  Magnetic bubbles appearing much like the milky way's are perpendicular to the galactic disk of carbonaceous material. Graphene plasmonics involves nanoribbons and nanodisks. The central plasmoid inwardly consumes the nanodisk.
BUCKYBALLS FORM QUANTUM DOTS. QUANTUM DOTS HAVE AN ENERGY GAP THAT SCALES INVERSELY WITH THEIR SIZE. The smaller the dot, the larger its ENERGY GAP. Black holes are quantum gravity singularities. Hawking's equation shows that the temperature of a black hole is inverse to its size.  Temperature and Energy Gap relationships makes identical analogue equations. 
RIBOSOMES ARE THE FUNCTIONAL EQUIVALENT OF A CARBON NANOTUBE. The Milky Way's 100 parsec elliptical twisted ribbon ring of cold dense molecular clouds located near the DISK is oriented perpendicular to the major axes of the Galactic Bar, appearing to trace the system of stable X_2 orbits predicted for the barred Galactic potential. Recently found by Herschel, it's origin is a puzzling mystery. Could it be part of a larger scaled fractal dimensional ribosomal strand, comprising a huge cell, common virus, or a living entity being?  DNA strands are twisted rings of filamentary structures.

Carbon Nanotubes propel cold atoms to spiral around an atomic black hole like stars orbiting the center of a galaxy.

NASA "BLACK HOLE" Carbon Nanotube coating absorbs 99% of all UV, Visible, IR, and far IR LIGHT Radiation that strikes it. Galactic black holes are merely inferred theoretically and mathematically impossible to exist.  Phenomenal black holes are aligned carbon nanotubes and 3D buckyballs that capture light, and convert it into electricity like solar cells. Galactic jets carry electric currents. EM Cosmology.

Electrons (blue) and Positive charged Holes (red) are bound together in a mutual orbit to form an EXCITON that converts light into electricity extremely efficiently in carbon nanotubes. A nanotube is an ideal PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELL that converts light into electricity and that multiplies the amount of electrical current that flows. Charge separation is how anti-matter forms, and how matter acquires mass analogous to charge.  Electrons tunnel across gaps and travel jump faster and farther distances inside carbon nanotubes, and better explains these facts to model galaxy centers without unobserved black holes warping space and time and required worms holes.
Javier Garcia de Abajo says a nanoscale disk with an array of graphene quantum dots or sufficiently strong oscillators such as metallic nanoparticles, could perfectly absorb 100% of the light hitting it from all directions when the light frequency matches the plasmon frequency. By changing the geometrical arrangement of the graphene structures, or by adding electrons either electrically or chemically, the frequency can be adjusted and changed.  Some galaxies are known to have 3d geometric shapes when aligned oriented precisely with a observation location, because graphene based metamaterials are doing what phony black holes were devised to be doing.
Graphene nanoscale disk is perfect black hole absorber
ambient heat energy converted into electricity with graphene device.













Xu has built a graphene battery device that runs for 20 days on nothing but ambient heat, converting thermal energy of the environment into electricity. The electric current increases when heated to higher temperatures. Other scientists have already generated electric current in graphene simply by moving water over it. When an ion contacts graphene, it loses an electron that follows a route through the circuit lighting up the LED.

Simple heat energy can be converted into electricity when charged ions in an aqueous solution environment contact graphene. In outer space high temperature PLASMA IONS contacting common buckyballs, nanotubes, and graphenes, must be involved in converting heat into cosmic scale electric currents that shape galaxies throughout the universe. Plasma is a good conductor of electricity, and comprises 99.9% of the universe. Stars and galaxies are 99.9% plasma. Vast electric currents have been measured in galactic jets, and these jets emanate from theoretically phony unseen inferred black holes. It becomes growingly obvious with innumerably new discoveries about graphene, that commonly abundant graphenes, dots, and buckyballs are important in absorbing light like black holes, and converting heat energy into galactic jets carrying electric currents.

Squeeze, twist, or bend graphene to get electricity
Straintronics of piezoelectric graphene deforms the shape of the carbon lattice directly proportional to the electric field applied.  Piezoelectric magnitudes of 2D graphene are comparable to 3D piezoelectric materials by the selective surface absorption of atoms on graphene.

Excitons in carbon nanotubes




Monday, August 8, 2011

Gravitational Waves Detection Search by GEO600 and Virgo teams until Sept 2011 Indicates more Failures

Gravitational Waves
GEO600 and Virgo have always failed to detect any gravity waves. GEO600 Gravity Wave Detector documents all clearly state failures, so they establish "limits on" along with their "NO DECTECTION of GRAVITY WAVES" statements.  ALL are blind shooters without a target nor an aim in their sight, searching for invisible gravity waves.  Yet right here on earth, we can observe the moon, and both are rocky objects having centers of mass.  If they can't use their interferometers properly, and aim them at the moon and planets, why should we expect them to find any gravity waves in outer space by aiming at more of the same electromagnetic phenomena?  GEO600 studies Gamma rays, supernovae bubbles, black holes, pulsars, and neutron stars. All these objects have proven measurable spin as electromagnetic phenomena, including jets, polarity N-S, charged particles, magnetic fields...  Perhaps a lunar eclipse should at least be attempted with their earth based devices to find gravity waves, instead of pretending that they have a detectable line of sight for gravity waves far away in outer space for powerful spinning electromagnetic phenomenal objects. The credit goes to Maxwell, and not to Einstein.  Gravity scientists at Universetoday.com are expressing their concerns and failures about the Higgs and gravity waves. They are speculating that Gravity might not exist ! Crowell hopes that they will find it soon HAHAHAH Gravity scientists want to pretend they'll find what Einstein's relativity predicts: gravity waves, black holes, dark matter, dark energy, Higgs...but zero and none of any of them have been found. Yet Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism are used for relativity, and maligned to purport their cosmology in what they themselves state is an unreal pseudo-force (gravity).  Recent evidence of gamma rays shows the planck scale does not exist in outer space. So light speed and gravitational forces will vary. The outer space vacuum is free of all quantum theories shows recent evidence.  Gravity scientists have mathematically invented and accepted particular signal frequencies, such as 22 HZ for an isolated pulsar, making it truly outlandishly ridiculous to believe in their crazy ideas.  Society would be better off to use their instruments to search for magnetic field lines, rather then gravity waves, and get the correct interpretation that Maxwell's electromagnetism rules the Universe instead of Einstein's Gravity.
Gravity Wave Hologram
Gravity Space Fabric
The "Albert Einstein Institute for Gravitational Physics", which is announcing another new collaborative search for gravity waves, needs to be renamed to The "Maxwell Institute for Electromagnetic Astrophysics." 

New Outer Space Stories - RSS Feeds

Cheap handheld Holographic microscope

Build your own CLOAKING DEVICE from magnetic tape and off-the-shelf superconductors

EM Black Hole Device without Gravity

Type II SUPERCONDUCTORS constrain the magnetic field in FILAMENTS surrounded by vortex currents.

Type II SUPERCONDUCTORS constrain the magnetic field in FILAMENTS surrounded by vortex currents.
Superfluid helium is a type II superconductor that carries angular momentum by electric currents in quantized vortices