Phillipp Kronberg and team states: For one component of the JET we obtain for the first time a direct determination of a Galactic-scale ELECTRIC CURRENT ~10e18 A and its direction-positive charge away from the AGN. Our analysis strongly supports a model where the jet energy flow is mainly ELECTROMAGNETIC. There must also be an incoming negative charge direction to the AGN, since the positive charge direction is outgoing and away from the galactic AGN. The galactic size rather then strength of magnetic fields surrounding galaxies implies that electromagnetic forces are actually doing the spinning and rotating of plasma galaxies. Kronberg and Lovelace wrote in "Measurement of the Electric Current in a KPC-scale Jet" that the radiated power is expected to be significantly less then the jet power, because the jet power goes into a combination of pdV work on the ambient medium and to energizing ions and electrons in the outer radiating lobes. 3c303's radiating knots are a few thousand times larger in volume then in M87's. Along the jet axis there is a net flow of negative charge toward the AGN core within knot E3. An equal but opposite return current flow inward or outward at much larger distances from the jet axis must occur, so that the net current outflow from the AGN source is zero. The toroidal magnetic field is responsible for collimating the jet." A discussion is ongoing at Thunderbolts Forum. Krongberg says "a sudden change in the waves alignment is an unambiguous signature of an electric current." "Magnetic fields from the black hole core of Galaxy 3c303 are generating the current, sending it out to 150,000 light years." It's strength is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 amps or 10 to the power 18 amps. It reaches as far out into the IGM as the galaxy itself. Team member Lovelace's model of a collimated current outflow and inflow is most credible. Black Holes are not required. Outer space is >99.9% plasma. This means that dark matter components should not be applied to explain galaxy shapes and great walls of galaxies aligned along cosmic sheets and filaments. The naked singularity is also mathematically possible says Hawking, but it is considered an abhorence to the big-bang theory. The naked singularity is the ultimate arch rival to the existence of black holes and dark matter. Black holes have never been directly observed, and merely have theoretical inferred postulated existence. Galaxies are close together and all have black hole jets that carry electric currents. THERE IS A LARGE NUMBER OF GALAXIES WITHIN LESS THAN A MILLION LIGHT YEARS OF OTHER GALAXIES. Conclusion: This means that the intergalactic medium IGM is filled with electric currents and magnetic fields, from galactic black hole jets that can extend as far out into space as the length of the galaxy itself. All galaxies have mere theoretical supermassive black holes at their centers, and are very close to neighbors with comparable sizes.
Measurement of the Electric Current in Galaxy 3c303