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Tuesday, September 18, 2012

ISM Solid Hydrogen and Superfluids with Helium3 in Cosmic Abundance Explains Mysterious Dark Matter, Black Holes, and DIBs by a Fractal Dust Astrochemistry Cosmology

The Universe is largely shaped by the most abundant atoms H and He and their superstates, which are not normal states of matter. Quantum mechanics has just two observable macro-scale states, superfluidity and superconductivity of electricity. Besides superfluid helium3, all atoms have incredible properties by a phase change at extreme cold. Scientists recently found a way to be able to detect solid hydrogen in the ISM. Magnetic fields and cold temperatures prevent sublimation into gas. They should also be trying to detect  superfluids like helium 3 in the coldest regions, liquid and solid hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. "The low viscosity of liquid helium makes laboratory observations of its fluid motions difficult", says Gregory Bewley."The settling velocity of a hydrogen particle is proportional to the square of its size, buoyancy rapidly moves larger hydrogen particles aggregates to the free surface of liquid helium, effectively removing them from the system." 
Hydrogen ice, likely a supersolid source to fuel stars with gas, has glowing whiteish or light colored halos that fractally connect inside to the centers of cold nebulas where stars form inside filaments:

 solid hydrogen ice glow in nebulas

3d knotted vortices in superfluid helium model the fractal filamentary cosmic web of galaxies, like beads on strings, the cold gas follows the filaments.

Is this nebula surrounded by a solid hydrogen ice glow?
"Interstellar Glow Likely Caused by Hydrogen Ice in Nebula""
Solid hydrogen "ice" likely permeates the interstellar medium ! 
Some of the "glow" observed by astronomers in the solar system and ISM matches the predictions for solid hydrogen. Solid hydrogen is a
superconductor of electricity, and its existence is no longer being dismissed by sublimation into gas in outer space. Organic PACs have been identified in large amounts matching the spectra of many very important DIBs, but PACs are just one contributor to the background glow that contains hundreds of unidentified spectra signatures. A Great website on "DIBs and PACs" can easily be interpreted differently than current theories. Earth is actually a parasitic viral planet. There are more viruses on earth than stars in the visible universe. PACs are organic waste products excreted by life. They stay in the body only a few days, and are stable molecules in outer space, believed to be responsible for originating life on earth.  PACs are believed to form in outer space by a chemical reaction with light, but this is unproven. PACS are believed to be abundant where planets are forming, and have been found inside our solar system. The biologic theory for the origin of PACs is extremely logical, because PACs are proven to easily support the growth of bacteria and low-life forms, that later evolved on earth into higher life.

Fractal Dusty Galaxies
Solid Hydrogen is stabilized by dusty impurities which are found in galaxies. H and He comprise 99.5% of the Universe's atoms. Fractal Dusty Plasma Galaxies in the fractal universe.
"The Cosmos in a Test Tube of Liquid Helium and Magnetic Fields" - Richard Haley at Lancaster Univ.

"Interstellar Solid Hydrogen" - The Astrophysical Journal - by Lin, Gilbert, Walker.
"Interstellar Solid Hydrogen" - Iopscience - by Lin, Gilbert, Walker.
"Solid Hydrogen Ice May Explain Interstellar Glow" - TechnologyReview
"Big-bang modeled as crystals with cracks, crevices, and phase changes."

Outstanding information on strange H, He, O atoms, and a great story on the emerging "Superfluid Cosmology": Very Hot and Cold Superfluids Demonstrate the Strangeness of Atoms."

"It is remarkable that a single, small hydrogen molecule exhibits most of the strong mid-IR bands which pervade astronomical environments. This fact alone makes (HD)+3 of great interest to astronomers. The floppy nature of these molecules led us to expect line properties which were found to be broadly consistent with those observed for the unexplainable puzzling diffuse interstellar bands called DIBs. The multitude of weak lines yields an apparent continuum of optical absorption. To these phenomena one can add FUV absorption contributed by the solid hydrogen matter itself and a red fluorescence, possibly attributable to H-. "In an astronomical context solid hydrogen is expected to manifest itself in a variety of ways, each of which seems to resemble one of the observed astronomical phenomena collectively attributed to dust." This is an incredible analogy implying the Universe is fractal, like dust. Solid hydrogen is more stable when it contains impurities in the lattice to help stabilize it, like the conditions found in outer space.  Serious considerations and new cosmology models should be built to reflect the fact that solid hydrogen is abundant in the ISM. The scientists state, "very likely there exists a gas which is so cold and dense that pure hydrogen precipitates can form. This gas cannot be part of the diffuse interstellar medium, but must instead form distinct "self-gravitating" cosmic entities." Clouds of this extremely cold dense type are mostly transparent, having very little thermal emission, and were postulated by Pfenniger and Combes to be a significant component of the galaxy's dark matter. Walker and Wardle argued that small amounts of solid hydrogen can confer thermal stability on these clouds, and maintain the shapes and rotation curves of galaxies without dark matter. Solid hydrogen is very dense and nearly transparent in the optical region. The 7.7 and 8.6 um astronomical bands are often the strongest of all observed UIR features, and are not predicted by solid hydrogen models. Good speculation is it could be from the abundant presences of both liquid and solid hydrogen, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, etc. in outer space, which of course if acknowledged someday, would clearly suggests a better older cosmology.

the "triple point" is largely T and P related. Matter can collectively transform into each of three different states (solid, liquid, gas).

Cosmic scale "Quadruple points" could be considered as locations where superfluid behaving plasmas interact with the exotic states of hydrogen and helium by astrochemistry laws.

Helium 4 makes up 23% of the Universes's ordinary matter, and nearly all the ordinary matter that is not hydrogen.

Liquid oxygen has a pale blue color, and is strongly paramagnetic. Liquid oxygen can be suspended between the magnetic poles of a powerful horseshoe magnet. 
The poles of galaxies could circulate liquid oxygen filaments around the galaxy.
Liquid Oxygen GALAXY Filaments 
pale blue liquid oxygen in a cup
Dusty Galaxy model 
Solid hydrogen particles stabilized by dust float on the surface of liquid helium. Solid hydrogen is abundant in the interstellar medium.
Dusty Galaxy model 
Solid hydrogen floats on liquid helium (NASA story)

Liquid Nitrogen's role with Electricity 
Broken light bulb stays lit by contacting liquid nitrogen
Liquid nitrogen is non-conductive and naturally surrounds electrical contacts, like does nitrogen gas. Filaments cause liquid nitrogen to vaporize producing an insulating bubble of nitrogen gas around the filament. This keeps the nitrogen liquid for a much longer time.
Magnetic Levitating Superconducting Galaxy Disks
Magnetic Levitation above a superconducting disk in liquid nitrogen
Sombrero Galaxy disk with halo

The milky way's galactic disk rotates around the galactic center. It has been found that the rotation speed is almost constant, no matter whether it is near the center or near the outer edge. The milky way's disk is roughly 100,000 light years in diameter, 1,000 light years average thickness, with a spheroidal bulge at the center of the galaxy that is 12,000 light years in diameter. The concentration of stars drops smoothly with distance from the center of the galaxy. Beyond a radius of roughly 40,000 light years, the number of stars per cubic parsec drops much faster with radius, for reasons not understood.  Recent NAO measurements show the sun is 26,100 light years from the galaxy center, and the galactic rotation velocity in our solar system is 240 km/sec around the center of the galaxy. NAO also found that the galactic rotation velocity is almost constant between 10,000 to 50,000 light years from the galactic center. This data can model a magnetically levitating superconducting galaxy disk, with liquid helium at the galaxy center. 
Liquid Neon

Super Fluid Helium as a Black Hole constituent  
Superstates of helium play important roles as constituents for a "black hole."  Solid hydrogen stabilized by dust floats on the surface of liquid helium. Inferred temperatures of black holes approach absolute zero. Solid hydrogen is found to likely fill the interstellar medium of a galaxy. Galaxy disks float around the surface or inferred center of the "black hole."  Liquid helium spins friction free with zero viscosity, as do black holes. Both liquid helium and black holes contain quantum vortices. The solid hydrogen particles form clusters like do stars and galaxies. Single liquid helium atoms align together and climb the container's surface mimicking anti-gravity.

Condensed Matter Phase Changes Forms Stars and Produces Starlight Radiation:

Atomic hydrogen propellant feed systems transport solid hydrogen particles from storage tanks to the engines using liquid helium as the carrier fluid. Turbulent flow keeps the hydrogen particles in suspension. Helium is a commonly used carrier gas for gas chromatography. Analogously in a galaxy full of stars, solid hydrogen particles from the interstellar medium are transported in suspension by turbulent super fluid flowing liquid helium, inside nebula"fountains" that form stars by a sudden phase change. Currently undetectable solid hydrogen particles are heated and form ionized hydrogen plasma gas. This releases the exothermic energy and radiation of sunlight, forms the gas bubbles, sunspots and magnetic fields of the sun, and explains away the plaque haunting fusion theory in the sun's core. Supernovas are explainable by the explosive phase change and huge 100x expansion ratio of  liquid helium conversion into gas. The liquid helium star core suddenly warms rapidly, and explodes ejects plasma gases. On earth, without pressure-relief devices installed, liquid helium explodes into helium gas. In outer space there are near vacuum conditions and extremely low pressures.  Helium gas containers at 5 to 10 Kelvin can rapidly thermally expand and explode when warmed towards room temperature. Liquid helium cools certain metals to extremely low temperatures required for superconductivity, such as in superconducting magnets for magnetic resonance imaging or MRI.  
Supersolid Helium 
Supersolidity occurs when outside atoms flow without friction through solid helium. Supersolid helium has lattice vacancies or defects.

solid carbon dioxide CO2 
A Fractal Macroscopic Quantum Effect in Liquid Helium
Quantum vortices in superfluid helium 

Helium crystals grow extremely rapidly in plasma superfluids.

Abundances of Elements in the Universe
H is first at 93.4%  He is second at 6.5%  Oxygen is third at 0.06%  Carbon is fourth at 0.03%  Nitrogen is fifth at 0.011%  Neon is sixth at 0.01%

New Outer Space Stories - RSS Feeds

Cheap handheld Holographic microscope

Build your own CLOAKING DEVICE from magnetic tape and off-the-shelf superconductors

EM Black Hole Device without Gravity

Type II SUPERCONDUCTORS constrain the magnetic field in FILAMENTS surrounded by vortex currents.

Type II SUPERCONDUCTORS constrain the magnetic field in FILAMENTS surrounded by vortex currents.
Superfluid helium is a type II superconductor that carries angular momentum by electric currents in quantized vortices